Abbreviations & Weights - Measures
|Abbreviations||Weights - Measures|
|t||Teaspoon||3 t = 1 Tablespoon|
|T||Tablespoon||4 T = 1/4 Cup|
|C||Cup||16 T = 1 Cup|
|pt||Pint||2 C = 1 Pint|
|qt||Quart||2 pt = 1 Quart|
|gal||Gallon||4 qt = 1 Gallon|
|lb||Pound||1.1 lb = 1/2 Kilo|
|K||Kilo||1 K = 2.2 Pounds|
|pwd||Powdered||2 T = 1 Fluid Ounce|
|lg||Large||2 1/4 C Sugar = 1 lb|
|sm||Small||4 C Flour = 1 lb|
|BP||Baking Powder||2 1/3 C Rice = 1 lb|
|oz||Ounce||3 C Corn meal = 1 lb|
|chp||Chopped||2 C Fat = 1 lb|
|opt||Optional||8 oz = 1 C|
Uncooked Equals Cooked
|Rice||1 Cup||3 1/2 Cups||4 to 6|
|Noodles||1 Cup||1 1/4 Cups||4|
|Macaroni||1 Cup||2 Cups||4|
|Oatmeal||1 Cup||1 1/2 Cups||2|
Boil - To cook in water or liquid at boiling temperature.
Cream - To mash or mix one or more foods together until creamy.
Knead - To press, stretch, and fold dough or similar mixture to make it smooth.
Roast - To bake in hot air without water or cover.
Scald - To heat liquid to just below the boiling point.
Saute - To brown or cook in small amount of fat in skillet.
Simmer - To cook in liquid just below the boiling point.
Filipinos rinse their rice a couple of times in the rice pot. Then they add water to the depth of one knuckle (index finger) above the rice (for new rice 1-6 mo.) or 1 1/2-2 knuckles above the rice level for old rice (6 mo.-1 yr. or more). If this is too vague for you, try the following:
Place 2 C rice in rice pot with 2 1/2 C water (use only 2 C if it's new rice). Put lid on saucepan over high flame. When rice comes to a boil, remove lid and let boil rapidly until most of the water is absorbed (no puddles of water are left on top!). Cover tightly, turn fire very low and let steam 10-15 minutes. If desired, remove saucepan from stove, with lid still on, and place on a wet cloth for about five minutes. This keeps the rice from sticking to the bottom of the pan.
Note: Once it starts to boil, DO NOT STIR.
Coconut milk as used in the Philippines is extracted from grated coconut and should not be confused with the watery liquid found in the coconut. Coconut milk is easily made by either of the following methods:
Fresh Coconut - Pour 2 C boiling water over 4 C freshly grated coconut. Let stand 20 minutes, stirring occasionally. Strain through a double thickness of cheese cloth (or fine strainer), pressing hard to remove all liquid.
Prepared Coconut - Pour 2 C milk over 1 can or package of coconut. Slowly bring to a boil; remove from heat and let stand 20 minutes, stirring occasionally. Strain through a double thickness of cheese cloth (or a fine strainer), pressing to remove all liquid.
Note: Coconut milk does not keep and will sour overnight in the refrigerator. However, it may be frozen and thawed before using.
To separate whites from yolks of eggs easily, break over funnel; the whites pass through, the yolks remain. To prevent eggs from cracking when boiling, add salt to water or prick small hole with straight pin in large end of egg. Egg yolk which by accident gets into white may be removed by touching with corner of damp cloth.
CAUTION: Some international authorities advise against the use of raw eggs or egg whites on the basis that typhoid can be carried in them. However, I have been unable to discover if this holds true for the Philippines and I've talked to many veteran missionaries. If you get your eggs from a doubtful source (i. e. native chickens that have the run of the village) better play it safe and make sure they're cooked.
Banana Leaves - Good for wrapping meat to barbecue. May be used for lining baking pans instead of greasing.
Cheese - If cheese is a good brand commercially packed, it will keep as long as it is in the wrapper. Melt some wax (small white candles can be bought almost anywhere) in a small can and spread on cut end with a spoon. Then bring up sides of the wrapping around this. If this is done each time a piece is cut off, it will last for at least six months.
Eggs - When buying eggs, test them by shaking. A bad egg will have a thumping sound.
Egg Stretcher - About 1/2 t baking powder and a little water will make up for the lack of an egg in some cake recipes. A small amount of baking powder (1/8 t) plus a little water may be used in meringue to make it go farther and make it fluffier.
Note: The Filipino term VETSIN refers to Monosodium glutamate or MSG. Some people suffer adverse reactions to MSG and some tests show it may be harmful to health. MSG may be left out of recipes that call for it.
1/2 K boric acid powder
1 large onion, grated
1 C flour
2 T sugar
Add enough milk to make a paste. Drop by teaspoonfuls on squares of waxed paper or foil. Put in kitchen cupboards, closets, etc. Effectiveness will last 4-6 months.